Concepts And Terms - Derek Witucki

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productionConcepts and TermsI. PostscriptIX. BluelineII. Postscript RIPX. Press Sheet & Gripper EdgeIII. Printing PressesXI. ImpositionIV. DensitometerXII. Types of ImpositionV. Dot GainVI. Rubber Blanket & Offset PrintingVII. Soft ProofVIII. Digital & Press Proofs

productionNo. IA. Postscript1. Postscript is a page description language or PDL Postscript translates the objects in a design layout into a language that canbe read by postscript devices like printers.Postscript looks like this:/m {newpath moveto} bind def/l {lineto} bind def/cp {closepath} bind def/s {stroke} bind def/sg {setgray} bind def

productionNo. IIII. Postscript RIP1. RIP stands for Raster Image Processor. A “RIP” is software that translates a graphic file into one that can be sent toa platesetter where the file is output to printing plates.A plate that has been printed by a platesetter. Each color that will beprinted on press has its own plate. The plates are “hung” on the press. Themachine in this image is a platesetter.

productionNo. IIIPrinting PressesAbove Heidelberg six-color press on the floor of a large print shop.Left top Komori six-color press. Paper is loaded at one end of the press where suctioncups grab it sheet-by-sheet and feed the paper into the press.Left bottom Komori four-color press. After the sheets have been printed they exit andstack at the opposite end of the press.

productionThe control panel or console of the press is located at the delivery end where printed sheetsexit the press.In the right-most images you see two consoles. At various intervals of the press run, the pressman will pull a sheet fom the stack and place it under lighting that is calibrated to 5000K(Kelvin), the ideal lighting for viewing color accurately. In the top image, the row ofbuttons below the sheet control the amount of color used by the press. The pressman willscan the printed sheet with a densitometer to read color values and adjust the color on pressas needed.

productionNo. IVDensitometerAbove, color bars and how to read them with a densitometer.Right top, a hand-held densitometer scans color bars and a readout is displayed on the screen.Right bottom, an automatic densitometer scans the color bars located at the top of the sheet.

productionNo. VIII. Dot Gain1. Dot Gain“ Dot gain” is the term that is used to describe the difference betweenthe requested tone value in the original application file and the resulting apparent final tone value on the substrate as measured with adensitometer.— Gordon PritchardFrom tone to dot to ink or from software to plate to paper1234561) Tonal value created in software 2) tone becomes dot in RIP 3) dot is imaged onto plate 4) plate is inked 5) ink is transferred to printing blanket 6) ink transferred to paper dot gain

productionNo. VIRubber Blanket& Offset PrintingThe image from the plate is transferred toa rubber blanket. At this point the image isbackwards. Next the image is transferred toto paper sandwhiched between the blanketand impression cylinders. All of this transferring is why this printing technique is calledOffset Printing.Rubber blanket, these must be replacedperiodically due to compression.

productionNo. VIIA Soft Proofs1. Soft Proofs Soft proofing is the process of checking a digital file on screen for accuracyof text and image placement. Color is not typically proofed at this stage,since this depends on a well-calibrated monitor.2. Successful Soft Proofs for Clients If you are sending files to clients for soft proofing, advise them that colorshould not be evaluated at this stage since their monitors will not be calibrated. Ask them to check only for correct text and images.3. Soft Proofs for Color Calibrate your monitor.Assign the correct color profile in the design software.Select the correct color profile under View Proof Setup.4. Soft Proofs with PDFSelect the correct color profile in Acrobat.Go to Advanced Print Production Output PreviewInDesign: 1) go to Edit Assign Profiles to be sure the correct color profile is selected. 2) go to View Proof Setup andselect correct color profile to see soft proof.

productionNo. VIIIA. Digital and Press Proofs1. Proofs Before a job is printed on press you and your client must approve colorproofs. Depending on the printer you use, these may take different forms.2. Digital Inkjet Proofs These are typically printed on a large format inkjet printer much like theEpson plotter in the graphics studio.3. Press Proofs These proofs are printed on an actual printing press and on the paper thatwill be used for a job. These are costly and rarely used since making themrequires actually printing on press.Right top, digital proofs are often made with an inkject plotter.Right bottom, the proofs are folded to mimic the final project.

productionNo. IXA. Blueline1. Blueline Bluelines are a form of analog imposition proof no longer used byprinters. Today, proofs are full color and made digitally. The term blueline is linked to “blueprints.” The chemical processused to create bluelines and blueprints resulted in prints onewhich all images and text were the color blue.Background: Bluelines of a sheet of NBA cardsForeground: Detail of Michael Jordan card

productionNo. XA. Gripper Edge1.Gripper or Lead Edge The gripper or lead edge of a press sheet is the leading edge which isgrabbed by grippers to be pulled through the press.2. Leave or Trailing EdgeThe trailing edge of a sheet is where the color bars are typically located.The gripper edge of a press sheet is located at thefront of the sheet as it goes through a pressColor bars are typically placed at the trailing orleave edge (at the back) of a press sheet

productionNo. XIA. Imposition Imposition is the process that takes reader spreads that are created indesign software and arranges them into printer spreads so they can beprinted, folded and bound. Imposition is done by the printer using software designed specifically forthis task. By providing the printer with a dummy of your publication, he orshe can be sure they get the job done right.

productionNo. XIIA. Types of Impositions1. Page vs Sheet In printing terminology, a “sheet” has two sides and a “page” has only oneside (think of a page in a book). With the correct imposition method manypages can be printed on one side of a sheet.2. Gang Up This is referred to as 2-up, 4-up, etc. This kind of imposition is good for aone- or two-page jobs. To avoid paper waste, try and get as many pages outof a press sheet as possible.Gang up Here you can see 2-up and 4-upimposition. Page 2 will be printed on theopposite side.3. First Form–Inner Form or Sheetwise This is the most common type of imposition. Sheets are placed on press sothe first page of the printed design lies on the front side of the printer’ssheet and the second page lies on the back side of the sheet. Another wayto say this is one form is placed on one side of the sheet and another formis placed on the other side (first form–inner form).4. Work and Turn In this type of imposition the first form is placed on half of the sheet andthe inner form is placed on the other half. This way all pages of a 4-pagesignature can be printed at once. Then the sheet is turned over and“backed-up.” The first and inner forms are printed again on the back side ofthe sheet resulting in 2 copies of a 4-page signature.First form-inner form orSheetwise, Each side of theprinted sheet will need onemakeready. Thus, you will needtwo plates per printed sheet.Work and turn, you place the firstform on one-half of the sheet andthe second or inner form on theother. When the entire run is printed,the sheets are turned over and runthrough the printing press a secondtime. Thus, you will need only oneplate for the job.

productionSheetwise ImpositionColor UseAn imposition method utilizing different plates for each side ofthe press sheet. One side is printed then the sheet is turned overand a different plate is hung on the press to print the back side.The gripper edge does not change.If you want to print some pages CMYK and others with only a spotor in black and white, plan the job so that only one ink combinationis printed per form. Here the first form or plate A is printed withCMYK. The inner form or plate b is printed with either a spot or withblack and white. This is more cost efficient.28 x 40" Text sheet8.5 x 11" Page size / 16-page signature5412913168172GripperFirst FormPlate A10111514GripperInner FormPlate B6316A1A15B2B14B3B13A4A12A5A11B6B10B7B9A8ACMYKSpot or BW

productionWork and TurnAn imposition method utilizing the same plate for both sides of thepress sheet. The back-up, or second side is printed by turning thesheet over from left to right. The gripper edge does not change.28 x 40" Text sheet9 x 12" Page size / Two 8-page brochures out of one sheet5436634581277218GripperGripperFront SheetBack Sheet

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InDesign: 1) go to Edit Assign Profiles to be sure the cor-rect color profile is selected. 2) go to View Proof Setup and . Imposition is the process that takes reader spreads that are created in